One size does not fit all: the new BOMA Standard 2010 for office buildings

An interesting article on the new BOMA Standards, a legal perspective. 

The Building Owners and Managers Association International (BOMA) recently released: Office Buildings: Standard Methods of Measurement and Calculating Rentable Area (2010) (“BOMA 2010”). This publication is the latest in a succession of BOMA Standards, which have been widely used for the measurement of the rentable area of office premises since 1915.

The new publication contains many revisions and additions to the previous BOMA standard of 1996: Standard Method for Measuring Floor Area in Office Buildings (“BOMA 1996”). We are about to give you a glimpse into what’s new.

Major Changes from BOMA 1996

Both standards were designed to create what is colloquially referred to as the “gross up”. The most significant change from BOMA 1996 is that BOMA 2010 includes more than one option for calculating the “load factor” (being essentially the multiplier applied to a tenant’s area to attribute to the area of the tenant’s premises a share of the common area). Method A (the “legacy method”, contained in BOMA 1996), allows users the option of calculating the load factor on a floor-by-floor basis. Method B (new in BOMA 2010, called the “Single Load Factor” method) allows for the calculation of a single load factor to be shared by the entire building. The total rentable areas of a building are the same regardless of whether Method A or B is chosen. However, in citing BOMA 2010, reference must be made to either Method A or Method B, and they cannot be combined.

Method A results in some floors having a higher “load factor” than others, because the building amenities and service areas are located in certain areas; a higher load factor can be unattractive to tenants, and ultimately make the floor less “leasable”. Prospective tenants generally prefer floors having a higher percentage of usable space to common area. Simply put: tenants don’t want to pay a lot for what they share. Accordingly, floors with a lower load factor lease more quickly and sometimes at better rates, even though from the vantage point of a landlord concerned about lease-up, these floors may not be the ideal location for a prospective tenant. When the floors with lower load factors are full, the remaining floors (with higher load factors) arguably become harder to lease. Method B controls the way rentable area is allocated amongst the floors so that all tenants, regardless of floor, are allocated the same percentage for calculation of their share of building amenities and service areas using a new concept called “Base Building Circulation”, a minimum common area required for access to and use of such amenities and service areas.

Also of interest is the “capped load factor”. The capped load factor is determined on a floorby- floor basis, and is particularly useful for historical buildings that often have very high load factors. The cap serves to adjust high load factors down into a leasable market range for the building.1 Excluding building service areas from the calculations is not permitted; instead, the building owner, in its sole discretion, can cap the load factor using a “market load factor” (the capped load factor in any event cannot exceed the actual load factor calculated under Method A or Method B); or the building owner can cap the rentable area of an occupant area by multiplying the occupant area by the capped load factor (the capped rentable area in any event cannot exceed the actual rentable area calculated under Method A or Method B). However, BOMA 2010 neither “recommends” capping nor expresses any view on how to set the “market load factor”.

Expanded Definitions and Measurement Methods

BOMA 2010 contains 53 definitions – an addition of 35 definitions over BOMA 1996. BOMA 2010 also revises some of the BOMA 1996 definitions. For instance, in BOMA 2010, “Major Vertical Penetrations” now excludes “voids”, which have their own definition, and “Tenant” becomes “Occupant”. BOMA 2010 also contains new rules for determining the measurement boundaries. BOMA 2010 has, in addition, expanded on the 7-step measurement method of BOMA 1996. BOMA 2010 provides a sub-step classification system to determine the interior gross area of a building and its floors. After classifying the type of space (e.g. “Occupant Areas” (formerly known as “Office Area” and “Store Area”), a user can consult detailed charts and illustrations to establish the position of the boundary line, and determine the interior gross area of the space. This interior gross area is then utilized in the calculation of the R/U ratio, which leads to the calculation of the R/O ratio, and the load factor, and ultimately, the end goal, “rentable area”. It is a rigorous process.

Bells and Whistles

What is most exciting about BOMA 2010 is its availability as an interactive PDF that includes the use of hyperlinks. Users can link to any one of the 45 colour illustrations cited within the text, as well as to zoom in on points of interest and take a closer look at the subtleties of the diagrams. The wide use of colour throughout the illustrations improves their overall graphic resolution and assists the eye in visualizing dimension. BOMA 2010 also contains a number of other helpful inclusions such as built-in answers to frequently asked questions (which feature was previously available as a supplementary document to BOMA 1996).

Adjusting to BOMA 2010

While BOMA 2010 boasts more content, better illustrations and greater sophistication as compared to BOMA 1996, the earlier version may still remain the preferred choice for many. In fact, the labyrinth of measurement concepts and interconnected definitions contained in the 64 pages of BOMA 2010 could leave the casual user pining for the old (slimmer) BOMA 1996 guide. The user of BOMA 1996 needed to master only a handful of definitions (such as “Gross Measured Area”, “Dominant Portion”, and “R/U Ratio”) in order to navigate the methods and equations; but the brevity of BOMA 1996, which admittedly left some terms open to interpretation (but allowed for more easy calculation), has been sacrificed in BOMA 2010 in the name of precision. BOMA 2010 removes some ambiguity in the use of the measurement standard, but in doing so, requires the user to become acquainted with more definitions and ultimately, to spend additional energy reaching the desired goal – determining rentable area. A technical user will no doubt find BOMA 2010 more conducive to accurate calculation, and over time, the new standard may prove to be a more streamlined system offering greater clarity than BOMA 1996. However, for the user accustomed to BOMA 1996, the new version will take much getting used to.

Which to use: BOMA 1996 or BOMA 2010?

With all of this to consider, which standard is the better for you? The answer largely depends on whether you are a landlord or a tenant. BOMA 2010 Method B offers a number of advantages for landlords, brokers and building owners, over BOMA 1996 and BOMA 2010 Method A. The application of Method B’s single load factor method will likely simplify leasing calculations as well as improve the chances of renting out harder to lease floors. It should allow landlords to reduce the undesirability of floors with higher load factors because the standard allows harmonization of all floors into one equal load factor. Conversely, it may be advantageous for a tenant to choose BOMA 1996 or BOMA 2010 (Method A) should its prospective floor happen to be one with a lower overall load factor (as compared to other floors in the same building).

At the end of the day, since BOMA 2010 provides multiple options within its methods for determining the load factor of a floor (and ultimately the rentable area of a premises), and since some landlords and tenants are able to negotiate for the use (however advisable or inadvisable that may be) of old BOMA standards, such as BOMA 1996, and even BOMA 1980, landlords and tenants should always be careful to specify their preferred BOMA Standard of measurement up front in the preliminary lease document (be it a letter of intent or an offer to lease), rather than leave it to argument.



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BOMA 2010 Standards – A Summary

Download a Summary of the new Standards, and how they may affect your building.

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Are you aware of the new BOMA Floor Measurement Standards and possible impact on your buildings?

For nearly 95 years, BOMA International has sponsored the standard method for measuring Floor area in office buildings. This BOMA Standard has been accepted and approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It is the method of measurement used by building owners, managers, facility managers, occupants, appraisers, design professionals, measurement professionals, leasing professionals, lending institutions and others to compute rentable areas in office buildings throughout the United States, Canada, and many other countries throughout the world.

The 1996 Standard (Z65.1-1996) has been used for office buildings for the past 14 years.Up until 2004, the Standard simply consisted of an Office Standard for calculating Rentable areas in typical office buildings that had some ground floor retail areas.In 2004 BOMA released the Industrial Standard, to be applied to all buildings that had more than 50% of space classified as ‘non-office’.This Standard has been updated in 2009, and ANSI-certified (Z65.2-2009).

However, in 2007 a major new initiative was announced between BOMA and IFMA (International Facilities Managers Association) to adopt and release a ‘Unified Approach for Measuring Office Space’.Both organizations realized they needed to standardize common terms and definitions used by both leasing and facilities management professionals.This document was to become the new basis of all future BOMA Measurement Standards.

In the past year, BOMA has released new Standards (Office 2010) for multi-tenant and single-tenant office buildings in compliance with this IFMA/BOMA Unified Approach, as well as for Retail, multi-unit Residential and Industrial space.They are currently working on a new Standard for mixed-use space as well.

How does this affect me?

If you own buildings with any of the following situations, then you should be aware of the impact of the new Office 2010 Standard on your Rentable areas:

Single tenant buildings

oThese may now be leased based on ‘Exterior Gross Area’ (formerly Gross Building Area), or Rentable.

Office buildings with exterior circulation

oExterior circulation may be considered as Rentable area now under the new Standard

Buildings with structured parking areas included within the building

oThese are now considered as part of the Exterior Gross Area

Office buildings with any of the following types of space:(these areas must all be calculated and disclosed under 2010 Standards)

oMezzanine space

oRestricted headroom space

oConnectors (between buildings in a complex)

oVault space (beneath sidewalks)

Also, the calculation of load factors and distribution of common area space is treated a bit differently under the new 2010 Standards, all of which will affect Rentable areas of individual tenancies.

Other important changes in the new Office 2010 Standard are:

·A building owner may now elect to choose between 2 types of BOMA calculations:

oMethod A (legacy method, with load factors varying by floor), or

othe new Method B (1 single load factor calculated per building)

·Capped Load Factor

oThe new Office Standard allows for the designation of a ‘Capped Load Factor’, thereby allowing you to ensure load factors do not exceed local market conditions, yet still be within BOMA Standards!



LASERTECH® has served as an Official Recognized Floor Measurement Standards Interpreter from 2004 through 2010, and is fully committed to ensuring you have the latest information and knowledge to make the best informed decisions about your buildings and space area measurements.

If you are a current LASERTECH® client, you have already made the investment in having accurate LASERTECH® floorplans prepared of your buildings and BOMA lease calculations in accordance with Standards in place at the time.For a free recommendation and evaluation of your building’s current drawings and lease plans, simply call your LASERTECH®FLOORPLANS representative.We will review your building and make a recommendation, based on building type, configuration, and tenancy, with no obligation.

If you are a new client, we will be happy to review your building’s current drawings and lease plans and make a recommendation, based on building type, configuration, and tenancy, with no further obligation. Simply call your LASERTECH®FLOORPLANS representative.

(888) 393.6655 / (888) 825.2112

BOMA Standards – ANSI certification approved May 2010

Effective May 12, 2010, the following Standards are now ANSI approved, with the following ANSI designations:

1.  The 2010 Office Standard is now referred to as:  Office Buildings: Standard Methods of Measurement (ANSI/BOMA Z65.1 – 2010)

2.  The 2009 Industrial Standard (formerly 2004) is now referred to as:  Industrial Buildings: Standard Methods of Measurement (ANSI/BOMA Z65.2–2009)

3.  The 2009 Gross Area Standard is now referred to as:  Gross Areas of a Building: Standard Methods of Measurement (ANSI/BOMA Z65.3 – 2009)

In addition, the upcoming new Retail Standard and Multi-Unit Residential Standard are both currently going through the ANSI approval process.

What you need to know about the new BOMA Measurement Standards and Office Buildings

As you may or may not know, BOMA has released a new Office Measurement Standard this year, in January 2010.  This is in addition to the Gross Area Standard that was released late 2009;  together, these new Standards are intended to replace the BOMA 1996 Floor Measurement Standard for office buildings.  For Industrial / Retail buildings, the 2004 Industrial Standard is still the recommended Standard to use  (for any building that is more than 50% non-office).

There is a lot of confusion out there at this point as to which standard to follow, and the intent of this blog is to attempt to clarify.  In addition, I would encourage you to submit specific questions you might have on any of the Standards in our Knowledge Base, from our home page.

Many are confused when it comes to single-tenant vs multi-tenant, and which standard would apply.  There is no single answer, but its important to understand the intent of each of the Standards, and the differences.  At the end of the day it is up to the building owner as to which Standard will be used for his/her building.

First, if you have a single-tenant building, BOMA does allow for leasing based on the “Exterior Gross Area”, as defined in the Gross Area Standard (2009). It is important to note that this is NOT Rentable area (as defined in the 1996 or 2010 Office Standards).  EGA is simply calculated to the building exterior, but does exclude void areas, exterior decking and balconies.  It does include parking areas within the building.  There is no load factor calculated, nor common areas defined.

This does not mean you MUST use EGA for single-tenant buildings, it is just allowed, and is fairly common practice.  Keep in mind if you need to compare your building to other, multi-tenant buildings, you cannot compare EGA with Rentable;  Rentable is typically about 10% less than EGA, as it excludes vertical penetrations (stairwells, elevators) and most of the exterior wall thickness.

So the first decision you need to make with single-tenant buildings is whether to lease based on EGA, or Rentable.   Also, all things being equal, the rental rates should be less for leases based on EGA vs Rentable, due to the space that is excluded from Rentable area.

If you decide to go with Rentable, then you have 3 choices basically as to which Standard to use.  It is highly recommended that your leasing language be referenced, to see if there is specific reference to a Standard or methodology to use.

If your leases refer to ‘current BOMA Standards’, then you should go with the new 2010 Office Standard, as that is the current Standard, and likely will be for the next 10 years or so.  If reference is made to the 1996 BOMA/ANSI Z65.1 Standard, then you should use that Standard (or of course update your lease language to reference 2010 Standards).  (Note that this is no longer an ANSI Standard, it should simply be referred to as the BOMA 1996 Office Standard.)

If you go with the new 2010 Office Standard, then you need to be aware that there are 2 methodologies defined in this Standard, and it is up to you as to which one to use.  Both can apply to single or multi-tenant buildings.

Methodology A is referred to as the Legacy Method, simply because it is an update to the 1996 Standard, and will result in different ‘load factors’ for each floor.  It is the simplest to implement, and the most accurate and fairest methodology, in terms of the distribution of common areas throughout the building.   Each tenant in a building is allocated a pro-rated share of building common areas (areas for the benefit of all tenants in a building), as well as a pro-rated share of the floor common areas on THEIR FLOOR ONLY  (that would be restrooms, mechanical closets, etc that service their floor only).

Methodology B is referred to as the Single Load Factor Method, as it results in 1 single load factor for the building.  Each tenant on each floor will have the same load factor used in the calculation of their Rentable area.  This can be viewed as unfair of course by tenants on floors with little common area (eg ground floor), and beneficial to tenants on floors with lots of common area.  It basically averages throughout the building.

Its important to note that the total rentable in the building will be the same under Method A or B.  The decision comes down to whether you want a single load factor for the building, or floor by floor factors.

The other option of course is remaining with the 1996 Standard.  The total Rentable for the building will not vary significantly from 1996 to 2010, though we are seeing some increases on ground floor, as the rules for when you can calculate to the building line (exterior) vs the inside or dominant portion, have been relaxed somewhat.  As a result, we are able to include exterior wall thickness more under 2010 vs 1996, and thereby increase the RSF of the building.

There are some other advantages to the new 2010 Standard over the 1996 Standard, which I will elaborate on at a later date.